Stages of development of the baby 1 to 6 months
In its first year of life, a newborn goes through several stages of development, which are more convenient to trace through the months. Each stage brings with it changes in the physiology, behavior and abilities of the child. For example, at the end of the first month of their life, the baby sometimes succeeds in smiling and fixing his gaze on objects.
He hears not only rhythmic sounds, but also his mother’s voice, can look into her mother’s eyes and study her face, but, of course, very briefly, literally one or two seconds.
From birth, babies have a well-developed sense of smell: it is this feeling that helps them recognize mother and quickly find her breast when feeding. A child can communicate with the outside world only by attracting attention with crying: this is how he talks, asks, demands, complains. Now the baby lives in «cycles» for 2.5 — 4 hours. That is, during this period of time he should eat, sleep, stay awake for 15 — 20 minutes. By the beginning of the second month of life, the child “walks” for thirty minutes or more.
Get ready for the fact that the second month of life will be more restless. At this time, nature launches the mechanism of independent work of the infant’s stomach, therefore some children suffer from colic. By evening, gases may accumulate in the intestines. The warm diaper on the tummy, the motion to the belly-to-belly motion, the venting tube and the tea with dill or fennel helps to eliminate the problem: all these measures can and should be used comprehensively, then the effect will be noticeable. These unpleasant phenomena usually end at the end of the third month of life, when the body of the baby adapts to the digestion of food.
During the second month, the child begins to move his legs and arms more and more actively. It reacts to sounds, and can even turn a small head towards the source of the noise. When talking to a child, he looks and listens. Affectionate speech and melodious tone make him smile. At this time, the baby is already beginning to be interested in people and toys. Large and bright objects briefly attract the attention of the child. Therefore, it is good to hang in the crib above the baby’s chest, at a height of 50-70 cm, multi-colored toys and change one of them from time to time.
At the appearance of the mother, like nothing else, the baby reacts actively, smiling and moving the arms and legs. In the second month, the child begins to roar, making the first sounds. He is already holding the head, so you need to shift it to the tummy, so that the neck muscles are strengthened. 2 months after the birth, the little man, lying on his stomach, lifts and holds the head on weight for more than ten seconds.
At 3 months, some parents will hear the laughter of their baby for the first time. But do not rush the child: he can laugh, and much later.
By three months, the baby already knows how to lift the head, leaning on the forearms of the hands, and for some time is in this position. The crumb not only examines, but also touches toys. It is better to move them closer to him, at a distance of 10-15 cm, so that you can reach them with handles without moving (this is usually not how the child can).
The best option — the bracket letter «G». Toys need to pick up not only different colors, but also from different materials. Merry-go-rounds with figures should not be placed too close to the face of the child, this can provoke the development of strabismus. It is better to periodically remove them from his field of view.
At this time, the walking shows that the baby is developing harmoniously. If by the end of the third month of life the child is silent — this is a reason to make a visit to a neurologist. Do not forget that these rudimentary skills of speech need to be developed, therefore try to talk more often with the baby, tell him little poems, sing songs.
Now the crumb smiles at your smile too. He always watches the look on your face. He does not like the serious face of his mother, he wants to see a smile on him more often. The child begins to examine objects, being in an upright position on the mother’s arms. He is already growing up at 8.5 — 9 cm and gaining in weight 2200-2500g from birth.
At 4 months, the child begins to sleep more calmly and the pause between snacks reaches 4 hours during the day and 6.5 to 8 hours at night. Now the baby has already developed its own enzymes, and attempts to move more actively affect the muscles of his stomach.
In the fourth month of life, the child tries to roll over independently on its side, spinning, and kicking. He can look at the toys hanging above him for a long time and, if they move, he tries to catch and hold on to something. The child picks up individual toys that he can see around him and studies them through tactile sensations. This can be used by offering him toys from materials of different textures.
Now the baby is lying on his stomach for a long time, leaning on his forearms and straightening his legs. In this position, he examines everything that surrounds him. He learned to recognize mother’s voice, even without seeing her. He distinguishes sounds, reacts to intonation. The revival of the baby during this period can cause affection and a toy. Keep talking to him, tell him about the weather, about his relatives, about simple household events.
At 4 months you can show the child various items by naming them. Do not forget about the friendly intonation. When feeding, the baby is already holding her mother’s breast or bottle with her own hands.
By the age of five months of the baby, he and his mother perfectly understand each other and become a harmonious couple. Only after hearing the mom’s voice from afar, the child expresses joy in every way. Now the baby is able to distinguish close people from strangers, so he needs to be introduced to new faces and give time to get used to them.
A five-month baby is able to take toys from the hands of an adult. Only often the object is immediately sent to the mouth. He lies on his stomach for a long time, leaning on the palms of his hands and lifting the body. Learned to roll from back to belly. Able to stand, relying on the entire foot.
Now the child is well distinguished intonation in speech, if he is scolded — frowning, talking tenderly — smiling. The baby must have a clear, unrestricted daily routine. Feeding with breast milk or mixtures is the basic ration, and fruit and vegetable puree, cereals are prescribed by the pediatrician.
In the sixth month of a child’s life, great changes take place. This is especially noticeable in the motor abilities of the baby. He begins, as befits a man, to move independently in space, that is, to crawl. Now it can not be left unattended outside the playpen or crib. It is not necessary to forbid the baby to crawl, just secure the edge of the bed, sofa, warm space on the floor with soft pillows and blankets. Stimulate the movement will be decomposed in different places toys.
At 6 months, the baby begins to attempt to sit down with support in his arms and get up on all fours. The movement inside the crib gives him great joy. And even if he is still floundering and now and then collapses to the side, this is still an achievement.
Do not worry if your child did not sit down at the specified time. This can happen a couple of months later, and in some cases, the child pushes this skill for some time. The reason for this phenomenon is not the ability to develop, but rather the interest and the need to carry out this or that movement.
As for crawling, keep in mind that some children do not master this skill, in principle, from sitting immediately moving on to standing and walking.
At this age, the child has already become skilled in taking objects lying on his back, and on his stomach, and on his side. He is interested in absolutely everything that comes into view: toys, remote controls, mom’s decorations, wires …
Another baby now knows how to roll over from his stomach to his back, his muscles are constantly strengthened. The child responds to his own name and responds to the appeal with a smile. In terms of speech skills, the gapping is replaced by babbling, now the child begins to pronounce syllables.
Toys can take crumbs for a very long time. He already has among them especially loved ones. At six months, the child’s height should be 61 — 71 cm, and weight — 6400 — 9200 grams.