Childbirth is one of the most exciting moments in the life of a pregnant woman.
This event should be approached confident in their abilities, capabilities and reliability of information received about childbirth as early as during pregnancy. Configure the right way and do it right, help knowledge. Pregnant women who are well aware of all the stages of the birth process and are psychologically prepared for the upcoming event are much easier to give birth than those expectant mothers who are not well aware of what will happen to them.
The process of childbirth is divided into three periods:
Period of disclosure. As a result of regular contractions (involuntary contraction of the muscles of the uterus), the cervix is opened.
Period of expulsion of the fetus from the uterus. Attempts are added to the contractions — arbitrary (that is, controlled by the woman in labor) contractions of the abdominal muscles. The child moves through the birth canal and is born into the world.
Sequential period. The birth of the placenta and membranes occurs.
The first stage of labor
The fact that childbirth has already begun or is about to begin is evidenced by the appearance of regular contractions and / or discharge of amniotic fluid. Contractions are involuntary, periodic contractions of the muscles of the uterus, aimed at shortening and opening the cervix. Normally, the length of the cervix is 3-5 cm, and the diameter is only a few millimeters. And for the birth of a child, it is necessary that the neck is fully shortened and opened up to 9-10 cm.
The period of disclosure is the longest in the process of childbirth. In the natural course of labor, this period continues for primiparous 10-11 hours, for multiparous ones – 6-7 hours.
At the beginning of this period there are regular contractions that last 15-20 seconds with an interval of about 15 minutes. As the cervix opens, contractions increase, become longer, and the intervals between them shorten. When the break between contractions is 10 minutes, you need to go to the maternity hospital.
During the opening period, it is recommended to walk, move, breathe properly, take a warm shower or bath. These measures contribute to a more rapid opening of the cervix, while reducing pain. You can ask your husband or midwife to massage the lumbar section – this will reduce the discomfort from contractions.
The second period of labor
Most women agree that the end of the disclosure phase, before the onset of the second stage of labor, is the most difficult. The contractions become frequent and painful, by this time anesthesia usually ceases to act, fatigue accumulates, it is still impossible to push. The condition of many women at this moment is described by a single phrase: “Everything! I can not anymore!”. The only consolation is that it does not last long.
After the cervix is fully opened, the doctor allows the woman to give birth. A woman usually herself feels a strong urge to “push out” a child from the birth canal. These urges are called attempts.
For the attempts to be effective, it is necessary to straighten and breathe correctly. Before the attempt, it is necessary to take more air into the lungs, hold your breath and try to effectively cope. It is important not to strain the face and legs during the exertions, but rather to relax them as much as possible. Between attempts also need to relax and rest.
The second period of labor lasts from 15 minutes to two hours, and for multiparous this stage is shorter than for nulliparous. During this period, doctors especially closely monitor the condition of the mother and fetus (regularly hear heartbeats, etc.).
Meanwhile, the baby is moving along the genital tract. At the height of one of the attempts from the genital slit, the lower pole of the head is shown (or the buttocks – with pelvic presentation), after the termination of the attempt the head disappears into the genital slit. This process – cutting the head – takes some time. At a certain moment, the pole of the head remains in the genital slit and in the intervals between attempts. Under the influence of continuing attempts, the eruption of the head begins, which continues until its full birth. There are very few. A few more attempts – and the whole child is born.
The newborn is placed on the mother’s belly (ideally), and they get to know each other for a while, rest after giving birth. Then the midwife or doctor cuts the umbilical cord and takes the child to carry out the appropriate treatment, bathing, measurements, weighing and examination by a pediatrician.
10-15 minutes after the birth of the child can be applied to the chest. This contributes to the reduction of the uterus, milk production, thus accelerating the start of breastfeeding.
The third stage of labor
The last period of birth – the birth of the afterbirth – the shortest. Usually the afterbirth is born 10-20 minutes after the birth of the child. Perhaps for this mom need a little bit tighter.
If the afterbirth is not separated for more than 30 minutes, the doctors will diagnose the delay of the children’s place in the womb and begin to take emergency measures.
The born placenta is carefully examined for its integrity. If everything is normal, that is, the afterbirth is completely separated, the woman is sewn up with tears or cuts (if any). After that, a hot water bottle with ice is placed on her stomach and is observed for some time in the delivery room.
At this the process of childbirth ends, and a new life begins for mother and baby.
You can read the features of how the child will continue to develop from birth to one year on our website.